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Table 3 Illustrates the T stages for urinary bladder carcinoma based of pathological findings [14, 15]

From: Accuracy of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of muscle invasion and histologic grading of the urinary bladder carcinoma

T stagesDescription
TaThe cancer is a non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Ta). It has grown toward the hollow centre of the bladder but has not grown into the connective tissue or muscle of the bladder wall.
TisThe cancer is a flat, non-invasive carcinoma (Tis), also known as flat carcinoma in situ (CIS).
T1The cancer has grown into the layer of connective tissue under the lining layer of the bladder but has not reached the layer of muscle in the bladder wall.
T2The cancer has grown into the inner (T2a) or outer (T2b) muscle layer of the bladder wall, but it has not passed completely through the muscle to reach the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder.
T3The cancer has grown through the muscle layer of the bladder and into the layer of fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder.
T4The cancer has spread into the prostate, uterus, vagina, the pelvic, or abdominal wall.