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Table 3 Image-defined risk factors in Neuroblastoma [8]

From: Assessment of the validity of image-defined risk factors (IDRFs) in abdominal neuroblastoma

Anatomic regionDescription
Multiple body compartmentsIpsilateral tumor extension within two body compartments (i.e., neck and chest, chest and abdomen, or abdomen and pelvis).
NeckTumor encasing carotid artery, vertebral artery, and/or internal jugular vein.
Tumor extending to skull base.
Tumor compressing the trachea.
Cervicothoracic junctionTumor encasing brachial plexus roots.
Tumor encasing subclavian vessels, vertebral artery, and/or carotid artery.
Tumor compressing the trachea.
ThoraxTumor encasing aorta and/or major branches.
Tumor compressing trachea and/or principal bronchi.
Lower mediastinal tumor infiltrating costo-vertebral junction between T9 and T12 vertebral levels.
Thoracoabdominal JunctionTumor encasing aorta and/or vena cava.
Abdomen and pelvisTumor infiltrating porta hepatis and/or hepatoduodenal ligament.
Tumor encasing branches of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) at the mesenteric root.
Tumor encasing origin of celiac axis and/or origin of the superior mesenteric artery.
Tumor invading one or both renal pedicles.
Tumor encasing aorta and/or vena cava.
Tumor encasing iliac vessels.
Pelvic tumor crossing sciatic notch.
Intraspinal tumor extensionIntraspinal tumor extension whatever the location provided that more than one third of spinal canal in the axial plane is invaded, the perimedullary leptomeningeal spaces are not visible, or the spinal cord signal intensity is abnormal.
Infiltration of adjacent organs and structuresPericardium, diaphragm, kidney, liver, duodenopancreatic block, and mesentery.
Conditions to be recorded, but not considered IDRF.Multifocal primary tumors, pleural effusion with or without malignant cells, ascites with or without malignant cells.