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Table 1 Comparisons of the qualitative CT findings among clinical groups

From: COVID-19 disease: CT Pneumonia Analysis prototype by using artificial intelligence, predicting the disease severity

Parameters Clinical score P value Post hoc
A (n = 32), mean ± SD B (n = 56), mean ± SD C (n = 32), mean ± SD
Gender     1.00  
 Male 26 (81.3%) 46 (82.1%) 26 (81.3%)
 Female 6 (18.8%) 10 (17.9%) 6 (18.8%)
Distribution     < 0.001  
 Peripheral 20 (62.5%) 32 (57.1%) 6 (18.8%)
 Random 10 (31.3%) 14 (25.0%) 2 (6.3%)
 Diffuse 2 (6.3%) 10 (17.9%) 24 (75.0%)*
GGO 30 (93.8%) 52 (92.9%) 30 (93.8%) 0.981  
Consolidation 22 (68.8) 56 (100.0%) 30 (93.8%) < 0.001  
Crazy-paving 8 (25.0%) 42 (75.0%)* 30 (93.8%)* < 0.001  
Air bronchogram 22 (68.8%) 56 (100.0%) 30 (93.8%) < 0.001  
Septal thickening 18 (56.3%) 48 (85.7%) 30 (93.8%) < 0.001  
Pleural fibrosis 0 (0.0%) 22 (39.3%) 12 (37.5%) < 0.001  
Effusion 0 (0.0%) 14 (25.0%) 4 (12.5%) 0.002  
Total severity score 5.62 ± 2.37 9.96 ± 2.64 16.12 ± 2.43 < 0.001 P1 < 0.001
P2 < 0.001
P3 < 0.001
Total score for crazy-paving and consolidation 3.00 ± 2.24 8.50 ± 2.43 14.12 ± 2.45 < 0.001 P1 < 0.001
P2 < 0.001
P3 < 0.001
No. of segments 10.37 ± 5.21 14.64 ± 3.24 18.87 ± 1.93 < 0.001 P1 < 0.001
P2 < 0.001
P3 < 0.001
No. of lobes 4.06 ± 1.31 4.82 ± 0.60 4.93 ± 0.24 < 0.001 P1 0.011
P2 0.002
P3 0.508
  1. P1 mild vs moderate, P2 mild vs severe, P3 moderate vs severe
  2. Significantly lower than other groups in the same category
  3. *Significantly higher than other groups in the same category