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Table 1 Differentials based on T1 hyperintensity of sphenoid sinus [7,8,9]

From: Sphenoid sinus aspergilloma clinically mimicking as malignancy—a case report

Sphenoid sinus aspergilloma in our case Expansile, T1 hyperintense, T2 hypointense, No restriction on DWI, no enhancement on post-contrast study, hyperdense on CT
Mucocele Expansile, T1 hyper/hypointense and T2 hyperintense, no post-contrast enhancement.
Melanoma T1 hyperintense, T2 hyperintense, show enhancement in post-contrast study, generally arise in nasal cavity.
Dermoid T1 hyperintense, STIR hypointense, fat density on CT
Epidermoid cyst Usually follow CSF signal but may be T1 hyperintense, show restriction on DWI.
Craniopharangioma and Rathke’s cleft cyst Usually T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense. Can be T1 hyperintense, however, the epicenter of the lesion is usually sellar/suprasellar while in our case, it is in sphenoid sinus.
Inverted papilloma Usually arise in nasal cavity, involve sinuses secondarily, T2 hyperintense