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Table 2 Duration of disease, time of procedure, target level, and type of LDP among the two groups and SH diameter in the US group

From: Caudal epidural steroid injection ultrasound-guided versus fluoroscopy-guided in treatment of refractory lumbar disc prolapse with radiculopathy

Variable Group I (US) (n = 59) Group II (FL) (n = 62) Test p
Duration (months)    MW  
 Mean ± SD 5.95 ± 2.5 5.82 ± 2.53   
 Median 5 5 0.60 0.55
 Range 2–11 2–11   NS
Time of procedure (min)    t < 0.001**
 Mean ± SD 6.10 ± 0.71 11.52 ± 1.14 31.28  
 Median 6 11.5   
 Range 5–8 10–13.5   
Sacral hiatus diameter
 Mean ± SD 4.69 ± 1.69    
 Median 4.9
 Range 1.3–8.9    
Variable No % No % χ2 p
Duration (months)
 < 6 34 57.6 35 56.5 0.02 0.90
 ≥ 6 25 42.4 27 43.5   NS
Target level
 L2–3/L3–4 4 6.8 5 8.1   
 L4–5 15 25.4 16 25.8   
 L4–5/L5–S1 25 42.4 26 41.9 0.09 0.99
 L5–S1 15 25.4 15 24.2   NS
Type of lumbar disc
 Central 37 62.7 38 61.3   
 Diffuse 17 28.8 18 29 0.06 0.97
 Foraminal 5 8.5 6 9.7   NS
  1. SD standard deviation, MW Mann-Whitney test, t independent t test, χ2 chi-squared test, NS non-significant (p > 0.05)
  2. **Highly significant (p < 0.01)