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Table 3 Visual analogue scale of the two studied groups

From: Caudal epidural steroid injection ultrasound-guided versus fluoroscopy-guided in treatment of refractory lumbar disc prolapse with radiculopathy

Variable Group I (US) (n = 59) Group II (FL) (n = 62) Test p
Before (mm)    t  
 Mean ± SD 70.31 ± 7.49 71.69 ± 5 1.20 0.23
 Median 70 71.5   NS
 Range 59–82 59–82   
1 month (mm)    MW  
 Mean ± SD 23.85 ± 21.07 24.03 ± 23.51   
 Median 15 14 0.84 0.40
 Range 5–74 3–77   NS
3 months (mm)    MW  
 Mean ± SD 27.73 ± 24.99 26.84 ± 25.30   
 Median 14 13.5 0.78 0.43
 Range 4–79 4–75   NS
P1$ < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P2$ < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P3$ 0.65 NS 0.41 NS   
  1. SD standard deviation, t independent t test, MW Mann-Whitney test, NS non-significant (p > 0.05), P1 before versus 1 month, P2 before versus 3 months, P3 1 month versus 3 months of test
  2. **Highly significant (p < 0.01)
  3. $Paired Wilcoxon test