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Table 4 Clinical tests of the two studied groups

From: Caudal epidural steroid injection ultrasound-guided versus fluoroscopy-guided in treatment of refractory lumbar disc prolapse with radiculopathy

Variable Group I (US) (n = 59) Group II (FL) (n = 62) t p
Modified Schober Test
Before (cm)
  Mean ± SD 3.23 ± 1.08 3.33 ± 1.11 0.44 0.66
  Median 3 3.15   NS
  Range 1.5 - 6 1.5 - 7   
1 month (cm)
  Mean ± SD 6.16 ± 1.55 6.11 ± 1.64 0.17 0.87
  Median 6 6.5   NS
  Range 2–9 2–10   
3 months (cm)
  Mean ± SD 5.98 ± 1.81 5.91 ± 1.87 0.23 0.82
  Median 6 6.5   NS
  Range 2–9 2–10   
P1# < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P2# < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P3# 0.18 NS 0.09 NS   
Straight leg raising test
Before (cm)
  Mean ± SD 3.23 ± 1.08 3.33 ± 1.11 0.44 0.66
  Median 3 3.15   NS
  Range 1.5 - 6 1.5 - 7   
1 month (cm)
  Mean ± SD 6.16 ± 1.55 6.11 ± 1.64 0.17 0.87
  Median 6 6.5   NS
  Range 2 - 9 2 - 10   
3 months (cm)
  Mean ± SD 5.98 ± 1.81 5.91 ± 1.87 0.23 0.82
  Median 6 6.5   NS
  Range 2–9 2–10   
P1# < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P2# < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P3# 0.18 NS 0.09 NS   
  1. SD standard deviation, t independent t test, NS non-significant (p > 0.05), P1 before versus 1 month, P2 before versus 3 months, P3 1 month versus 3 months of test
  2. **Highly significant (p < 0.01)
  3. #Paired t test