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Table 5 Oswestry Disability Index of the two studied groups

From: Caudal epidural steroid injection ultrasound-guided versus fluoroscopy-guided in treatment of refractory lumbar disc prolapse with radiculopathy

Variable Group I (US) (n = 59) Group II (FL) (n = 62) Test p
Before (%)    t  
 Mean ± SD 55.29 ± 7.39 55.73 ± 6.54 0.34 0.73
 Median 55.3 55.7   NS
 Range 40.70–69.20 42.3–68.5   
1 month (%)    MW  
 Mean ± SD 21.15 ± 16.21 22.04 ± 16.78   
 Median 14.5 15.9 0.38 0.70
 Range 5.8–60 5.7–64.5   NS
3 months (%)    MW  
 Mean ± SD 23.77 ± 20.22 25.82 ± 21.07   
 Median 12.6 15.6 1.27 0.20
 Range 5.8–64.5 6.2–67.60   NS
P1$ < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P2$ < 0.001** < 0.001**   
P3$ 0.43 NS 0.06 NS   
  1. SD standard deviation, t independent t test, MW Mann-Whitney test, NS non-significant (p > 0.05), P1 before versus 1 month, P2 before versus 3 months, P3 1 month versus 3 months
  2. **Highly significant (p < 0.01)
  3. $Paired Wilcoxon test