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Table 6 Relation between demographic data, disease duration, time of procedure, and target level baseline data of the studied cases and outcome

From: Caudal epidural steroid injection ultrasound-guided versus fluoroscopy-guided in treatment of refractory lumbar disc prolapse with radiculopathy

Variable Succeed (n = 86) Failed (n = 35) Test p OR (95% CI)
Age (years) < 40, N (%) 38 (44.2%) 8 (22.9%) χ2   
≥ 40, N (%) 48 (55.8%) 27 (77.1%) 4.80 0.03* 2.67 (1.09–6.55)
BMI (kg/m2) Normal, N (%) 7 (8.1%) 1 (2.9%) χ2   1
Overweight, N (%) 36 (41.9%) 16 (45.7%) 0.15 0.56 NS 3.11 (0.35–7.70)
Obese, N (%) 43 (50%) 18 (51.4%)    2.93 (0.34–5.57)
Sex Female, N (%) 51 (59.3%) 19 (54.3%) χ2   
Male, N (%) 35 (40.7%) 16 (45.7%) 0.26 0.61 NS 1.23 (0.56–2.71)
Procedure US, N (%) 42 (48.8%) 17 (48.6%) χ2   
FL, N (%) 44 (51.2%) 18 (51.4%) 0.01 0.98 NS 1.01 (0.46–2.22)
Duration (months) < 6 56 (65.1%) 13 (37.1%) χ2   
≥ 6 30 (34.9%) 22 (62.9%) 7.94 0.005** 3.16 (1.40–7.15)
Time of procedure: (min.) Mean ± SD 8.81 ± 2.85 9.03 ± 3 t   
Range 5–13.5 5–13.5 0.39 0.70 NS
Target level L2–3/L3–4, N (%) 2 (2.3%) 7 (20%) χ2   10.63
L 4–5, N (%) 23 (26.7%) 8 (22.9%)    (2.0924.14)
L4–5/L5–S1, N (%) 38 (44.2%) 13(37.1%) 11.34 0.01*  
L5–S1, N (%) 23 (26.7%) 7(20%)    
Type of lumbar disc Central, N (%) 57 (66.3%) 18 (51.4%)    
Diffuse, N (%) 26 (30.2%) 9 (25.7%) 11.33 0.003** 8.20
Foramen, N (%) 3 (3.5%) 8 (22.9%)    (2.0323.11)
Schober Test before (cm) Mean ± SD 3.5 ± 1.43 3.09 ± 1.23 t   
Range 1.8–7 1.5–6.5 1.49 0.14 NS
Straight leg raising (°) Mean ± SD 50.03 ± 15.92 46.07 ± 10.02 t   
Range 30–75 30–70 1.36 0.18 NS
VAS (mm) Mean ± SD 70.70 ± 6.11 71.8 ± 6.93 t   
Range 59–82 59–82 0.87 0.39 NS
Oswestry Disability Index (%) Mean ± SD 55.27 ± 6.75 56.11 ± 7.64 t   
Range 40.70–69.2 42.7–68.5 0.61 0.55 NS
Sacral hiatus diameter   (n = 42) (n = 17) MW   
Mean ± SD 4.68 ± 1.52 4.71 ± 2.09 0.42 0.68 NS
Range 1.8–8.9 1.3–8    
  1. SD standard deviation, t independent t test, MW Mann-Whitney test, χ2 chi-squared test, NS non-significant (p > 0.05)
  2. *Significant (p < 0.05)
  3. **Highly significant (p < 0.01)