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Table 1 Statistical analysis for significant relation between morphologic/volumetric HRCT findings and clinical severity

From: COVID-19 clinico-radiological mismatch: a proposal for a novel combined morphologic/volumetric CT severity score with blinded validation

HRCT findings: Mild
(observed and expected values)
Borderline-severe and severe/critical (observed and expected values) Chi-square after Yates correction P value
Volumetric analysis:
[S1] 0–15% of lung volume is involved: 271 (213.08) 0 (57.92) 258.4958 < 0.00001
[S2] 15–25% of lung volume is involved: 27 (40.10) 24 (10.90) 23.1384 0.000017
[S3] 25–50% of lung volume is involved: 0 (38.53) 49 (10.47) 216.8037 < 0.00001
[S4] > 50% of lung volume is involved: 0 (6.29) 8 (1.71) 30.0667 < 0.00001
Morphologic pattern:
[M1] Pure GGO or solid nodule with GG halo sign: 150 (121.09) 5 (32.91) 54.4123 < 0.00001
[M2] GGOs with “Atoll sign”: 50 (42.46) 4 (11.54) 7.3078 0.00687
[M3] GGOs mixed with consolidations: 70 (62.90) 10 (17.10) 4.7499 0.02930
[M4] Homogeneous consolidations or “curvilinear” consolidations: 15 (22.80) 14 (6.20) 13.5262 0.00024
[M5] GGOs with “air bubble sign”: 3 (5.50) 4 (1.50) 5.4304 0.0198
[M6] GGOs with early secondary fibrosis and architectural distortion: 7 (20.44) 19 (5.56) 44.4097 < 0.00001
[M7] Patchy GGOs with smooth septal thickening “focal crazy paving”: 7 (20.44) 19 (5.56) 44.4097 < 0.00001
[M8] It refers to diffuse alveolar damage pattern (DAD);
- By definition, it is diffused (> 50%) of lung volume involvement [S4]
- By definition, it represents mixed GGOs with “crazy-paving pattern” and “air bubble sign.”
  0 (5.5) 7 (1.5) 26.2377 < 0.00001
Other relevant signs:
Others Pleural effusion (minimal): 8 (10.22) 5 (2.78) 2.3396 0.1261
Others Pericardial effusion (minimal): 8 (7.08) 1 (1.92) 0.5776 0.4472
Others Tree in bud nodules: 3 (3.15) 1 (0.85) 0.0317 0.8587
  1. *All P value are < 0.05, considered as statistically significant