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Table 2 Imaging findings of conflict-related injuries encountered in our study population

From: Multi-modality imaging of referred civilian combat-related injuries: a multi-center study in Egypt

Imaging findings Number Percentage
Cranial injuries 53 31%
 Cerebral contusion 8 4.7%
 Calvarial fracture 9 5.3%
 Skull base fracture 3 1.8%
 Subdural hematoma 11 6.4%
 Subgaleal hematoma 16 9.4%
 Encephalomalacia 2 1.2%
 Pneumocephalus 4 2.3%
Maxillofacial injuries 70 41%
 Nasal bone fractures 15 8.8%
 Zygomatic fracture 2 1.2%
 Maxillary fracture 3 1.8%
 Orbital fracture 6 3.5%
 Globe rupture 12 7%
 Hemosinus 4 2.3%
 Soft tissue edema 23 13.5%
 Surgical emphysema 5 2.9%
Thoracic injuries 55 32.1%
 Chest wall fractures 21 12.3%
 Lung contusion/laceration 12 7%
 Pleural effusion 6 3.5%
 Pneumothorax 9 5.3%
 Surgical emphysema 7 4.1%
Abdominal injuries 36 21.1%
 Solid organ injury 12 (9 liver–3 renal) 7%
 Bowel perforation 3 1.8%
 Hemoperitoneum 9 5.3%
 Retroperitoneal hematoma 4 2.3%
 Abdominal wall hematoma 2 1.2%
 Surgical emphysema 5 2.9%
 Abscess formation 1 0.6%
Spine injuries
 Fractures 15 8.8%
Extremity injuries 132 77.2%
 Upper limb fractures 69 40.4%
 Lower limb fractures 48 28.1%
 Muscle injury 6 3.5%
 Ligament injury 3 1.8%
 Marrow contusion 6 3.5%
CT scanogram
 Foreshortening 6 3.5%
Vascular injuries
 Vascular occlusion 8 4.7%