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Table 1 Univariate analysis of clinical, pathologic, and MRI findings associated with NAC invasion by underlying breast cancer

From: Prediction of nipple-areolar complex involvement by breast cancer: role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)

  Free NAC
n = 92
Malignant NAC invasion
n = 33
Test of significance
Age/years
Mean ± SD
43.82 ± 9.61 45.12 ± 8.42 t = 0.691
p = 0.491
TS/cm
Mean ± SD
3.55 ± 1.67 5.51 ± 2.34 t = 4.30
p < 0.001*
  n = 72 n = 21  
≤ 2cm
> 2 cm
13 (18.1)
59 (81.9)
0 (0.0)
21 (100.0)
χ2 = 4.41
p = 0.036*
TND/cm
Mean±SD
3.89 ± 2.63 2.28 ± 1.94 t = 4.71
p = 0.032*
≤ 2cm
> 2 cm
25 (27.2)
67 (72.8)
21 (63.6)
12 (36.4)
χ2 = 13.88
p < 0.001*
LP    
 Mass
 Non-mass
72 (78.3)
20 (21.7)
21 (63.6)
12 (36.4)
χ2 = 2.73
p = 0.09
Abnormal nipple enhancement    
 Present
 Absent
2 (2.2)
90 (97.8)
19 (57.6)
14 (42.4)
χ2 = 53.33
p < 0.001*
NM (Nipple morphology)    
 Normal
 Abnormal (inverted or retracted)
86 (93.5)
6 (6.5)
12 (36.4)
21 (63.6)
χ2 = 46.78
p < 0.001*
Sym NM (symmetry of nipple morphology)    
 Symmetric
 Asymmetric
89 (96.7)
3 (3.3)
12 (36.4)
21 (63.6)
χ2 = 57.07
p < 0.001*
TNE (tumor nipple enhancement)    
 Present
 Absent
22 (23.9)
70 (76.1)
24 (72.7)
9 (27.3)
χ2 = 24.88
p < 0.001*
PST (peri-areolar skin thickening)    
 Present
 Absent
0 (0.0)
92 (100.0)
22 (66.7)
11 (33.3)
χ2 = 74.43
p < 0.001*
TT (tumor type)    
 DCIS
 IDC
 Invasive lobular carcinoma
3 (3.3)
82 (89.1)
7 (7.6)
6 (18.2)
27 (81.8)
0 (0.0)
MC
p = 0.006*
TG (tumor grade)    
 Low or intermediate
 High
67 (72.8)
25 (27.2)
19 (57.6)
14 (42.4)
χ2 = 2.63
p = 0.105
LNS (lymph node state)    
 Positive
 Negative
54 (58.7)
38 (41.3)
17 (51.5)
16 (48.5)
χ2 = 0.510
p = 0.475
PR (progesterone receptor) state    
 Positive
 Negative
50 (54.3)
42 (45.7)
26 (78.8)
7 (21.2)
χ2 = 6.09
p = 0.014*
HER 2    
positive
negative or equivocal
51 (55.4)
41 (44.6)
31 (93.9)
2 (6.1)
χ2 = 15.96
p < 0.001*
KI 67    
 High
 Low
70 (76.1)
22 (23.9)
25 (75.8)
8 (24.2)
χ2 = 0.001
p = 0.970
ER (estrogen receptor) state    
 Positive
 Negative
63 (68.5)
29 (31.5)
26 (78.8)
7 (21.2)
χ2 = 1.26
p = 0.262
  1. χ2 Chi-square test, MC Monte Carlo test, t Student’s t test
  2. *Statistically significant