Skip to main content

Table 2 Multivariate analysis of clinical, pathologic, and MRI findings associated with NAC invasion by underlying breast cancer

From: Prediction of nipple-areolar complex involvement by breast cancer: role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)

  Free NAC
n = 92
Malignant NAC invasion
n = 33
β P Odds ratio
(95% CI)
TS/cm n =7 2 n = 21    
 ≤ 2cm 13 (18.1) 0 (0.0) 20.51 0.99 Undefined
 > 2 cm 59 (81.9) 21 (100.0)    
TND/cm      
 ≤ 2 cm 25 (27.2) 21 (63.6) 1.54 < 0.001* 4.69 (2.02–10.92)
 > 2 cm (R) 67 (72.8) 12 (36.4)    Reference group
Abnormal nipple enhancement      
 Present 2 (2.2) 19 (57.6) 4.12 < 0.001* 61.07 (12.81–291.22)
 Absent (R) 90 (97.8) 14 (42.4)    Reference group
NM (nipple morphology)      
 Normal (R) 86 (93.5) 12 (36.4)    Reference group
 Abnormal 6 (6.5) 21 (63.6) 3.22 < 0.001* 25.08(8.43-74.6)
Sym NM (symmetry of nipple morphology)      
 Symmetric (R) 89 (96.7) 12 (36.4)    Reference group
 Asymmetric 3 (3.3) 21 (63.6) 3.95 < 0.001* 51.92 (13.44–200.58)
TT (tumor type)      
 DCIS(R ) 3 (3.3) 6 (18.2) −1.80 0.015* Reference group
 IDC 82 (89.1) 27 (81.8) - 0.99 0.165 (0.039–0.704)
 Invasive lobular carcinoma 7 (7.6) 0 (0.0) 21.89   Undefined
TNE (tumor nipple enhancement)      
 Present 22 (23.9) 24 (72.7) 2.14 < 0.001* 8.48 (3.44–20.94)
 Absent (R) 70 (76.1) 9 (27.3)    Reference group
PST (peri-areolar skin thickening)      
 Present 0 (0.0) 22 (66.7)    
 Absent 92 (100.0) 11 (33.3) 23.32 0.999 Undefined
PR (Progesterone receptor state)      
 Positive 50 (54.3) 26 (78.8)    3.12 (1.23–7.91)
 Negative(R ) 42 (45.7) 7 (21.2) 1.14 0.016* Reference group
HER 2      
 Positive 51 (55.4) 31 (93.9) 2.523 0.001* 12.46 (2.71–55.17)
 Negative or equivocal 41 (44.6) 2 (6.1)    Reference group