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Table 1 Indirect CCF cases

From: Dural carotid-cavernous fistulas: our experience with endovascular management

Sr No. Age/sex Presentation Comorbidities Duration (months) Side Type Approach Material used Session Post-procedure status/follow-up
1. 60/M Chemosis, proptosis, diplopia HTN, DM 4 Right C TAE PVA 1 Improved
2. 35/F Chemosis, proptosis, ↓vision - 6 Left C TAE Detachable coils, n-BCA 1 Improved
3. 42/M B/l chemosis, proptosis, diplopia HTN 12 Left D TVE-IPS Detachable coils 1 Improved, persistent 3rd and 6th CN palsy
4. 49/F Chemosis, proptosis HTN, DM 6 Right D TAE PVA 2 Improved
5. 18/M RTA, proptosis, chemosis, ↓vision - 16 Right D TAE PVA 2 Improved
6. 42/F Chemosis, proptosis, diplopia - 9 Left D TVE-IJV-FV Detachable coils 1 Improved
7. 70/F Chemosis, proptosis HTN, DM 11 Left D TAE PVA 1 Improved
8. 34/M RTA, chemosis, proptosis, ↓vision - 2 Left D TAE-PAO Detachable coils 1 Improved, persistent 3rd and 6th CN palsy
9. 42/F Chemosis, proptosis HTN, DM, CVST 8 Left D TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Improved
10. 40/F Chemosis, proptosis CTD 6 Right D TVE/TAE Detachable coils, PVA 1 Improved
11. 41/M Chemosis, proptosis, diplopia - 7 Right D TVE/TAE Detachable coils, PVA 1 Improved
12. 57/M B/l chemosis, proptosis, ↓vision HTN 6 Left C TVE-direct FV puncture Fibred coils 1 Improved
13. 49/M Chemosis, proptosis, diplopia - 5 Left D TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Improved
14. 50/M B/l proptosis, chemosis HTN 6 Left D TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Improved
15. 17/M Chemosis, proptosis, ↓vision - 3 Right D TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Improved
16. 47/M Chemosis, proptosis, diplopia HTN 9 Right D TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Improved
17. 37/M Chemosis, proptosis, ↓vision - 15 Right D TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Improved, persistent ↓vision
18. 20/M Proptosis, vision loss - 18 Right C TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Proptosis decreased, vision loss persisted
19. 31/F Chemosis, proptosis, diplopia - 14 Right C TAE Fibred coils, n-BCA 1 Improved
20. 33/F Chemosis, proptosis - 7 Right C TVE-IPS Fibred coils 1 Improved
  1. Abbreviations: M male, F = female, HTN hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus, TAE trans-arterial embolization, PVA poly-vinyl alcohol particles, n-BCA N butyl cyanoacrylate (glue), B/l bilateral, TVE transvenous embolization, IPS inferior petrosal sinus, CN cranial nerve, RTA road traffic accident, IJV internal jugular vein, FV facial vein, PAO parent artery occlusion, CVST cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, CTD connective tissue disorder