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Table 1 Mean ± standard deviation of histogram parameters with resulted P values between different tumor grades obtained from ADC, post-contrast T1WI, and T2-FLAIR images

From: Grading of meningioma tumors based on analyzing tumor volumetric histograms obtained from conventional MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient images

Parameter Grade I Grade II Grade III P value
ADC (× 10−6 mm2/s)
Mean intensity 895.2 ± 9.3 678.6 ± 5.9 605.1 ± 8.5 < 0.01
Modal intensity 863.5 ± 10.6 659.4 ± 6.6 588.7 ± 5.8 < 0.01
Median intensity 910.3 ± 12.7 697.8 ± 7.4 613.0 ± 13.2 0.01
Maximum value 1233.2 ± 114.5 1205 ± 143.4 1162.7 ± 157.6 0.21
Minimum value 582 ± 88.5 535 ± 76.9 518 ± 98.6 0.15
10th percentile 645.6 ± 51.4 638.9 ± 44.6 622.2 ± 58.7 0.09
25th percentile 736.9 ± 55.4 725.5 ± 41.15 704.4 ± 54.3 0.11
75th percentile 1094.7 ± 33.6 1003.6 ± 37.5 927.6 ± 45.8 0.04
90th percentile 1148.8 ± 39.8 1044.5 ± 41.5 986.6 ± 46.0 0.02
Kurtosis 3.8 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 1.2 0.08
Skewness 0.06 ± 0.11 0.07 ± 0.16 0.03 ± 0.18 0.24
SD 64.5 ± 13.3 56.6 ± 11.2 48.8 ± 13.7 0.02
T1WI-post-contrast
Mean intensity 1116.3 ± 84.5 1025.1 ± 79.6 818.6 ± 95.6 < 0.01
Modal intensity 1195.7 ± 88.9 1134.2 ± 85.1 925.7 ± 99.3 < 0.01
Median intensity 1044.8 ± 76.7 984.3 ± 78.1 776.3 ± 88.8 < 0.01
Maximum value 1343.8 ± 174.7 1296.3 ± 152.0 1158.7 ± 181.6 0.31
Minimum value 258.7 ± 94.6 225.6 ± 93.5 181.8 ± 76.6 0.24
10th percentile 512.9 ± 64.2 473.8 ± 58.7 426.3 ± 76.3 0.18
25th percentile 856.6 ± 58.2 731.3 ± 55.9 628.5 ± 61.8 0.04
75th percentile 1224.7 ± 90.4 1191.5 ± 87.2 989.6 ± 92.5 0.07
90th percentile 1296.8 ± 61.2 1238.5 ± 60.6 1078.9 ± 78.1 0.02
Kurtosis 3.9 ± 1.3 4.0 ± 1.2 5.3 ± 1.4 0.03
Skewness − 0.36 ± 0.21 − 0.31 ± 0.24 − 0.19 ± 0.38 0.49
SD 128.7 ± 22.1 106.0 ± 23.6 95.4 ± 25.5 0.03
T2WI-FLAIR
Mean intensity 567.9 ± 67.4 523.6 ± 78.3 505.4 ± 79.9 0.09
Modal intensity 753.2 ± 54.6 678.4 ± 55.1 615.4 ± 58.0 0.01
Median intensity 659.2 ± 60.5 615.3 ± 66.9 578.3 ± 75.4 0.18
Maximum value 875.5 ± 82.3 794.8 ± 81.7 742.2 ± 75.2 0.16
Minimum value 189.5 ± 67.4 157.0 ± 65.2 201.2 ± 73.5 0.47
10th percentile 331.2 ± 58.2 302.6 ± 48.6 291.4 ± 52.3 0.28
25th percentile 385.5 ± 74.8 347.6 ± 66.7 321.2 ± 72.5 0.32
75th percentile 724.3 ± 86.9 688.3 ± 85.4 645.0 ± 91.6 0.21
90th percentile 814.6 ± 81.5 734.7 ± 77.9 692.2 ± 71.8 0.15
Kurtosis 4.1 ± 1.5 4.3 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 1.2 0.03
Skewness − 0.43 ± 0.31 − 0.45 ± 0.28 − 0.31 ± 0.29 0.54
SD 58.2 ± 8.8 44.6 ± 6.4 36.3 ± 9.1 0.02