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Table 2 Causes of poor image quality or non-diagnostic view

From: Frontal tangential coronal view two-dimensional ultrasonography in assessment of fetal face [mouth and nose] in comparison with four-dimensional ultrasonography

Cause No No. in 2D exam No. in 4D exam P value
Decreased amniotic fluid 30 9 26 < 0.001
Close proximity to placenta 12 3 9 0.014
Close proximity to uterine wall 9 4 6 0.635a
Close proximity to limbs 13 4 9 0.049
Close Proximity to umbilical cord 2 1 2 1.000a
Posterior deep fetal head orientation 9 6 7 1.000a
Deeply seated fetal head at the pelvis 8 5 7 0.564a
Fetal movement 2 0 2 0.317a
  1. Values of statistically significant p values were marked in blod
  2. aFisher exact test was used instead of Pearson χ2 due to nonparametric data