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Table 1 Clinical and MR imaging features of different vascular anomalies [7]

From: Role of ultrasound and colored Doppler examination in the diagnosis and the classification of the superficial soft tissue vascular anomalies

Vascular anomalies Clinical features MR imaging features* Treatment
Vascular tumors
 Infantile hemangioma Proliferating phase: occurs in 1st few weeks of life; rapidly growing lesion; strawberry-like, pulsatile, warm mass Proliferating phase: well-defined lobulated mass, low SI on T1WI, high SI on T2WI, flow voids on SE images, no perilesion edema, early homogeneous enhancement None (propranolol)
  Involuting phase: grayish dark red mass; complete regression at age 7–10 y Involuting phase: fat replacement (high SI on T1WI), decreased enhancement  
Low-flow vascular malformations
 Venous Occurs in childhood or early adulthood; blue, soft, compressible, non-pulsatile mass; grows proportionally with the child without regression Septated lobulated mass without mass effect, phleboliths (low SI), fluid–fluid levels, low SI on T1WI, high SI on T2WI, no flow voids on SE images, infiltrates tissue planes, surrounding edema possible, no arterial or early venous enhancement, slow gradual enhancement, diffuse enhancement on delayed images Percutaneous sclerotherapy
 Lymphatic Occurs in childhood; smooth, noncompressible, rubbery mass; grows proportionally with the child without regression Septated lobulated mass, fluid–fluid levels, low SI on T1WI, high SI on T2WI, no flow voids on SE images, infiltrates tissue planes; if macrocystic, has rim and septal enhancement; if microcystic, no significant or slight diffuse enhancement Percutaneous sclerotherapy
 Capillary Occurs at birth; cutaneous red discoloration; grows proportionally with the child without regression Skin-thickness lesion None
High-flow vascular malformations
 AVM Occurs in childhood or early adulthood; red, pulsatile, warm mass with a thrill; grows proportionally with the child without regression No well-defined mass; enlarged feeding arteries and draining veins; flow voids on SE images; infiltrates tissue planes; early enhancement of enlarged feeding arteries and nidus with shunting to draining veins Transarterial embolization
  1. *the guide reference in our study in the classification of venous and lymphatic malformations compared to ultrasound and Doppler examination