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Table 1 Overview of studies included

From: Assessment of intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging for differential diagnosis of breast lesions and evaluation of response: a systematic review

Author Year SD (P/R) Pat. no Age: median (range) Machine type Parameters b-values (s/mm2) Tumor diameters (mm) Malignant Benign Main findings
Suo et al. [35] 2021 R 144 51.7 ± 11.8 3-T Philip ADC, DDC, D*, f 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, 150, 200, 500, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 2500 39.8 ± 21.2 NA NA Indifferent ADC change at after treatment was a predictor of pCR pre NAC in BC
Kim et al. [36] 2018 R 46 45 (25–67) 3-T ADC, D, D*, f 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 500 and 800 4.15 (2.2–9.3) NA NA D & ADC are suitable for the calculation of response to NAC in BC patients
Cho et al. [37] 2017 R 31 47.40 (28–66) 1.5 or 3 T ADC, D, D*, f, VTT% 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 250, 400, 600, 800, 1000 13.84 (3.43, 44.45) NA NA D value displayed predictive capabilities; measured and heterogeneous D* bid poor prognosis. Baseline ADC&D values were not important interpreters of response
Che et al. [38] 2016 P 36 50.9 (27–75) 3.0 T D, D*, f, MD, V 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100, 150, 200, 400, 800, and 1000 4.89–1.52 NA NA IVIM factors, particularly the D and f value, displayed likely value in the before-treatment prediction & early response checking to NAC in BC
Bedair et al. [39] 2017 P 36 55 (32–75) 3.0-T ADC, DDC, and Dt 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 300, 600, 900 1.2–12 NA NA DW is sensitive to baseline and early usage vicissitudes in BC by bi-exponential
He et al. [40] 2021 P 202 43.8 ± 9.2 3 T Siemens ADC, D, D*, f, MK, and MD 0, 30, 50, 80, 120, 160, 200, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 NA 152 63 ADC was improved than that of D* and there was no numerical change among D and MD. There was no significant change in investigative efficiency among ADC alone as related to ADC & MK
Meng et al. [41] 2020 P 121 57 ± 11 3 T GE D, D*, f 0, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 400, 800, 1000 Malignant: 25.6 ± 11.4; Benign: 22.4 ± 8.9 65 58 IVIM-parameter f, D*, and D standards displayed associations with some predictive features for BC
Song et al. [42] 2018 R 85 54 3 T Siemens D, D*, f 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100, 150, 200, 400, 600, 1000 18 (8–48) 85 0 Showing the possibility of IVIM biomarkers to offer info on the biotic and kinematic possessions of BC devoid of a contrast agent
Zhao et al. [43] 2018 R 141 50.2 ± 10.5 3 T GE   0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 500, 1000, 1500 NA 119 22 The IVIM biomarkers of cancer, tumor superiority and per tumor tissues in many subtypes of BC may perhaps be suitable for difference of BC subtypes and to evaluate the invasive amount of the tumors
Mao [44] 2018 R 124 45.3 ± 8.7 3 T Siemens D, D*, f 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 NA 77 47 IVIM canister advantage to increase the specificity & accuracy in difference identification of breast benign & malignant lesions
Lin et al. [45] 2017 P 93 48 3 T Philips ADC, D, D*, f 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 500, 800 NA 51 47 IVIM offers measurable quantity of cellularity & vascularity for describing BC. In D displays moral potential for classifying BC
Iima et al. [46] 2017 P 199 58.5 (20–88) 3 T Siemens ADC, D, D*, f 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 Benign: 25.7 (10–100); Malignant: 18.2 (10–62) 152 47 IVIM & non-Gaussian diffusion factors, & their mishmash through integrated diagnostic approaches, may provide BC investigative accuracy like to BI-RADS devoid of the necessity for contrast agents
Cho et al. [47] 2016 R 62 48.44 ± 11.14 3 T Siemens ADC, D, D*, f 0, 30, 70, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 800 32.5 ± 27.2 50 12 Innovative DWI display relations by molecular predictive aspects & BC. This study illuminate certain of the practical variability in usage response between BC patients
Wang et al. [48] 2016 R 48 46.85 ± 8.63 3 T GE ADC, D, D*, f 0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, 800 Malignant: 159.9 (82.6–243.2) mm2; Benign: 87.5 31 23 D can efficiently accompaniment current predictable DW &DCE in distinguishing malignant since benign BC. IVIM united with DCE is a forceful incomes of assessing BC
Liu et al. [49] 2016 P 56 NA 1.5 T Philips ADC, D, D*, f, Ktrans, Kep, Ve and Vp 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100, 150, 200, 400, 600, 1000 Malignant: 28.32 ± 4.25; Benign: 22.27 ± 3.96 36 23 IVIM is suitable in the difference of BC. Important associations were found among perfusion parameters as of DCE &IVIM. IVIM may be a suitable adjunctive instrument to standard MRI in detecting BC
Bokacheva et al. [50] 2014 R 35 57 3 T GE ADC, D, D*, f 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 400, 600, 800, 1000 Benign: 20 (8–48); Malignant: 38 (9–80) 26 14 The IVIM biomark offer exact documentation of malignant lesions
  1. Bold values indicates the features of included studies in the current meta-analysis