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Table 4 Neurodevelopmental outcome in PCMs

From: Pediatric cerebellar malformations: magnetic resonance diagnostic merits and correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome

 No. cases/%
PCMsGDDMotor delayLanguage delayIntellectual disabilityASDADHDEpilepsyAtaxic gaitNystagmusTremorsBehavioral changes
Cerebellar hypoplasia (unknown diagnosis) (n = 29)2721161400196023
Isolated vermian hypoplasia (n = 4)22433230011
Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) (n = 14)126785537030
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (n = 4)42321124411
Congenital muscular dystrophy (n = 3)33330022310
Lhermitte-Duclos Cowden Syndrome (n = 1)11110011000
Rhomboencephalosynapsis (n = 2)21221102201
DWM with Joubert syndrome (n = 1)11110011010
Total (n = 58)52/
90%
37/
64%
37/
64%
34/
59%
10/
17%
11/
19%
31/
53%
33/
57%
9/
15%
9/
15%
6/
7%
  1. GDD global developmental delay, ASD autism spectrum disorder, ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder