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Table 1 General clinical findings of the selected group patients (n = 60)

From: Reliability of MRI in detection and differentiation of acute neonatal/pediatric encephalopathy causes among neonatal/pediatric intensive care unit patients

DisorderNumberClinical key findings
1. Hypoxic ischemia injury (HII)39 (65%)Varying degree of encephalopathy according to its severity
2. Metachromatic leukodystrophy6 (10%)Autosomal recessive (AR), motor signs of acute peripheral neuropathy, deterioration in intellect, speech, and coordination, gait disturbance, quadriplegia in 2, and blindness in 1 patient. Death occurred in 2 patients of them after 6 months of initial admission.
3. BTBGD4 (6.7%)AR, early onset encephalopathy (before the age of 4 years), and febrile illness progress to acute encephalopathy, dystonia, ataxia, and seizures and death if the patients were not treated with biotin and thiamine supplements
4. Leigh disease4 (6.7%)Hypotonia, ataxia, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and dystonia
5. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)3 (5%)Premature (33–36 weeks of gestation) all showed delayed milestones
6. MELAS2 (3.3%)Healthy at birth with early normal development, then growth delay, seizures, episodic vomiting, and recurrent cerebral stroke-like insult
7. Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia2 (3.3%)Acute encephalopathy shortly after delivery