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Table 1 TMN staging for RCC [8]

From: Multimodality imaging review of focal renal lesions

TMN stage Disease extent
T1 Tumor ≤ 7 cm and confined to the kidney
 • T1a  • Tumor ≤ 4 cm
 • T1b  • Tumor > 4 cm but ≤ 7 cm
T2 Tumor > 7 cm and confined to the kidney
 • T2a  • Tumor > 7 cm but ≤ 10 cm
 • T2b  • Tumor > 10 cm but confined to the kidney
T3 Tumor extension into major veins or perinephric tissues but not into ipsilateral adrenal gland or beyond Gerota’s fascia
 • T3a  • Tumor grossly extends into the renal vein or its segmental (muscle containing) or tumor invades perirenal and/or renal sinus fat but not beyond Gerota’s fascia
 • T3b  • Tumor grossly extends into the vena cava below the diaphragm
 • T3c  • Tumor grossly extends into the vena cava above the diaphragm or invades the wall of the vena cava
T4 Tumor invades ipsilateral adrenal gland or extends through Gerota’s fascia
N0 No regional lymph node metastases
N1 Metastases to regional lymph nodes
M0 No distant metastases
M1 Distant metastases