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Table 2 Distribution of COVID-19 and H1N1 patients according to predominant HRCT finding with statistical analysis of significance

From: COVID-19 versus H1N1: challenges in radiological diagnosis—comparative study on 130 patients using chest HRCT

HRCT findings COVID-19 H1N1 X2 P value
N (65) % N (65) %
Site of the pathology:
Bilateral 55 84.6% 60 92.3% 1.88 0.17
Unilateral 10 15.4% 5 7.7% 1.88 0.17
  Mixed 50 76.9% 55 84.6% 1.24 0.27
  Lower lobar only 10 15.4% 7 10.8% 0.61 0.44
  Upper lobar only 5 7.7% 3 4.6% 0.53 0.47
   Diffuse/mixed 30 46.2% 35 53.8% 0.77 0.38
   Sub-pleural 34 52.3% 30 46.2% 0.49 0.48
   Proximal 1 1.5% Not detected 1 0.32
HRCT findings related to parenchymal or alveolar pathology (GGOs):
Mild stage: 50 76.9% 44 67.7%   
  Pure ground glass nodules or patchy opacities (GGOs). 18 (36%) 27.7% 10 (22.7%) 15.4% 1.97 0.16
  GGOs showing peripheral organization “Atoll sign” 13 (26%) 20% 7 (15.9%) 10.8% 1.42 0.23
  GGOs mixed with consolidative changes. 19 (38%) 29.2% 27 (61.3%) 41.5% 5.11 0.02
Severe or critical stage: 15 23.1% 15 23.1%   
  GGOs mixed with consolidative changes. 1 (7%) 1.5% Not detected 1 0.31
  GGOs mixed with fibrotic changes. 1 (7%) 1.5% Not detected 1 0.31
  “Crazy paving pattern” (part of DAD or ARDS) 13 (86%) 20% 15 (100%) 23.1% 2.14 0.14
HRCT findings related to bronchial/bronchiolar airway pathology: (N.B: either isolated or mixed with alveolar pattern, all were mild)
 Tree in bud nodules 1 1.5 % 9 13.8% 6.93 0.008*
 Air trapping Not detected 7 10.8% 7.4 0.007*
 Bronchial wall thickening Not detected 5 7.7% 5.2 0.02*
 Traction bronchiectasis Not detected 5 7.7% 5.2 0.02*
 Mucous plugging Not detected 4 6.2 % 4.13 0.04*
 Mixed air trapping and GGO “Head cheese pattern” Not detected 3 4.6% 3.07 0.08
Relevant associated HRCT findings:
 Pleural effusion 3 4.6% 7 10.8% 1.73 0.19
 Pericardial effusion 2 3.1% 6 9.2% 2.13 0.14
 Cavitation 1 1.5% 1 1.5% 0 1
 Significant L.N enlargement 7 10.8% 5 7.7% 0.37 0.54
  1. *P value < 0.05 is considered clinically significant