Skip to main content

Table 4 Distribution of imaging findings by adverse clinical outcomes of COVID-19

From: Can initial chest CT scan predict status and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection? A retrospective cohort study

Imaging findings ICU admission P value Death P value Disease severitya P value
Yes No Yes No Moderate Severe Critical
Ground glass, n (%)
 Yes 159 (97.5) 333 (92.5) 0.024 114 (94.2) 378 (94.0) 0.940 219 (90.5) 150 (96.8) 123 (97.6) 0.005
 No 4 (2.5) 27 (7.5)   7 (5.8) 24 (6.0)   23 (9.5) 5 (3.2) 3 (2.4)  
Consolidation, n (%)
 Yes 157 (96.3) 319 (88.6) 0.004 116 (95.9) 360 (89.6) 0.033 204 (84.3) 151 (97.4) 121 (96.0) < 0.001
 No 6 (3.7) 41 (11.4)   5 (4.1) 42 (10.4)   38 (15.7) 4 (2.6) 5 (10.6)  
Reticular pattern, n (%)
 Yes 49 (30.1) 80 (22.2) 0.54 32 (26.4) 97 (24.1) 0.604 48 (19.8) 45 (29.0) 36 (28.6) 0.059
 No 114 (69.9) 280 (77.8)   89 (73.6) 305 (75.9)   194 (80.2) 110 (71.0) 90 (71.4)  
Bilateral lung involvement, n (%)
 Yes 162 (99.4) 335 (93.1) 0.002 119 (98.3) 378 (94.0) 0.055 226 (93.4) 145 (93.5) 126 (100) 0.013
 No 1 (0.6) 25 (6.9)   2 (1.7) 24 (6.0)   16 (6.6) 10 (6.5) 0 (0)  
Crazy paving, n (%)
 Yes 40 (24.5) 71 (19.7) 0.212 30 (24.8) 81 (20.1) 0.273 44 (18.2) 40 (25.8) 27 (21.4) 0.193
 No 123 (75.5) 289 (80.3)   91 (75.2) 321 (79.9)   198 (81.8) 115 (74.2) 99 (78.6)  
Pleural effusion, n (%)
 Yes 8 (4.9) 34 (9.4) 0.077 5 (4.1) 37 (9.2) 0.072 20 (8.3) 17 (11.0) 5 (4.0) 0.098
 No 155 (95.1) 326 (90.6)   116 (95.9) 365 (90.8)   222 (91.7) 138 (89.0) 121 (96.0)  
Lesions distribution, n (%)
 Peribronchovascular
  Yes 78 (47.9) 97 (26.9) < 0.001 58 (47.9) 117 (29.1) < 0.001 54 (22.3) 58 (37.4) 63 (50.0) < 0.001
  No 85 (52.1) 263 (73.1)   63 (52.1) 285 (70.9)   188 (77.7) 97 (62.6) 63 (50.0)  
 Peripheral
  Yes 157 (96.3) 347 (96.4) 0.968 119 (98.3) 385 (95.8) 0.184 234 (96.7) 148 (95.5) 122 (96.8) 0.781
  No 6 (3.7) 13 (3.6)   2 (1.7) 17 (4.2)   8 (3.3) 7 (4.5) 4 (3.2)  
Number of zones involved, median (IQR) 5 (4-5) 4 (3–5) < 0.001 5 (4–5) 4 (4–5) 0.002 4 (3–5) 5 (4-5) 5 (4–5) < 0.001
CSS (continuous), median (IQR) 17 (11-22) 22 (18–24) < 0.001 18 (12–22) 22 (17–24) < 0.001 15 (10.75–20.25) 20 (15–23) 23 (18–25) < 0.001
CSS ≥ 19, n (%)
 Yes 115 (70.6) 150 (41.7) < 0.001 76 (62.8) 189 (47.0) 0.002 79 (32.6) 93 (60.0) 93 (73.8) < 0.001
 No 48 (29.4) 210 (58.3)   45 (37.2) 213 (53.0)   163 (67.4) 62 (40.0) 33 (26.2)  
  1. IQR interquartile range, CSS CT severity score
  2. aBased on the World Health Organization criteria