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Table 1 Distribution of COVID-19 patients according to the demographic and radiological features in comparison between the first and second pandemic waves with statistical significance

From: COVID-19 in Egypt after a year: the first and second pandemic waves from the radiological point of view; multi-center comparative study on 2000 patients

The demographic and radiological features: First pandemic wave Second pandemic wave P value
N % N %
Age:
 • 0–10 years: 1 0.1% 0.317
 • 11–20 years: 15 1.5% 149 14.9% < 0.00001
 • 21–30 years: 83 8.3% 128 12.8% 0.001
 • 31–40 years: 333 33.3% 187 18.7% < 0.00001
 • 41–50 years: 292 29.2% 177 17.7% < 0.00001
 • 51–60 years: 125 12.5% 163 16.3% 0.016
 • 61–70 years: 107 10.7% 132 13.2% 0.085
 • 71–80 years: 55 5.5% 63 6.3% 0.448
 - Mean: 43 34  
 - Standard deviation (SD): 19.6 17.9  
Sex (Male : Female): 62.5 : 37.5% 61 : 39 % 0.771
Pre-existing lung co-morbidity: 13 1.3% 42 4.2% 0.000073
 • COPD: 7 0.7% 22 2.2% 0.005
 • ILD: 5 0.5% 0.025
 • TB: 1 0.1% 0.317
 • Sarcoidosis: 4 0.4% 9 0.9% 0.164
 • Lung cancer or metastatic process: 2 0.2% 5 0.5% 0.256
CT findings (at two weeks of infection):
 • Ground-glass opacities with or without consolidations: 1000 100% 1000 100%
 • Atoll sign: 84 8.4% 99 9.9% 0.245
 • Bulls-eye or target sign: 2 0.2% 0.157
 • Crazy-paving: 167 16.7% 222 22.2% 0.002
  ° Patchy lesions with inter-lobular septal thickening. 105 10.5% 142 14.2% 0.012
  ° Diffuse ground-glass with inter-lobular septal thickening. 62 6.2% 80 8% 0.117
Peri-lobular fibrosis 123 12.3% 173 17.3% 0.02
 • Air-bubble or vacuolar sign: 19 1.9% 36 3.6% 0.02
 • Cavitation (> 1 cm): 5 0.5% 0.025
 • Air-way involvement: 33 3.3% < 0.00001
  ° Head-cheese: 8 0.8% 0.005
  ° Bronchiectasis: 25 2.5% < 0.00001
  ° Tree in bud nodules 1 0.1% 1 0.1% 1
 • Lymph nodes (short axis > 1 cm): 22 2.2% 38 38% 0.036
 • Pleural effusion: 5 0.5% 3 0.3% 0.479
 • Pericardial effusion: 13 1.3% 33 3.3% 0.003
 • Pneumo-mediastinum: 2 0.2% 7 0.7% 0.095
Post-infectious sequel or complications (after 1 month of infection):
 • Residual ground-glass attenuation: 7/49 14.3% 41/122 33.6% 0.011
 • Fibrosis: 3/49 6.1% 15/122 12.3% 0.234
 • Residual head cheese: 5/122 4.1% 0.151
 • Secondary air trapping only: 3/122 2.5% 0.268
Secondary fungal infection: 4 0.4% 0.045
COVID-19 reinfection: 1 0.1% 0.317
  1. * P value < 0.05 is considered statistically significant