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Table 4 Extra-nasal involvement

From: A multicentric observational study of imaging findings in COVID-19-related rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis: a new Pandora’s box

(a) Periantral involvement n = 18 (%)
Premaxillary infiltration 16 (89)
Fat streakiness 14 (79)
Abscess 2 (11)
Buccal fat infiltration 11 (61)
Facial muscle involvement 7 (39)
Retroantral infiltration 16 (89)
Pterygopalatine fossa involvement 6 (33)
Masticator space involvement 10 (56)
Medial pterygoid 7
Lateral pterygoid 2
Masticator 1
Temporal fossa 8 (44)
Infratemporal fossa 9 (50)
Palate involvement 4 (22)
Maxillary alveolar arch 5 (28)
Mandibular alveolar arch 2 (11)
(b) Orbital involvement n = 14 (%)
Proptosis 13 (93)
Preseptal space 12 (86)
NLD involvement 10 (71)
Extraconal fat 13 (93)
Streakiness 13
Subperiosteal collection 5
Intraconal space involvement 8 (57)
Ocular muscle involvement  
Medial rectus 5
Lateral rectus 3
Superior rectus 3
Inferior rectus 5
Superior oblique 3
Globe involvement 4 (29)
Optic nerve involvement 4 (29)
Stretched 3
Enhancement 1
Orbital apex 1(4)
(c) Intracranial extension n = 5 (%)
Only meningeal enhancement 1 (20)
Infarct + meningeal enhancement 1 (20)
Abscess + meningeal enhancement 1 (20)
Extra axial collection 2 (40)
(d) Vascular involvement n = 2
Cavernous sinus thrombosis 2
ICA thrombosis 2
(e) Bony changes n = 8 (%)
Rarefaction 3 (37)
Erosion/destruction of 4 (50)
Cribriform plate 2
Medial wall of orbit 3
Inferior wall of orbit 1
Maxilla 4
Mandible 1
Antrum 1
Altered marrow signal intensity 1 (13)