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Table 4 Association between each type of back cutaneous stigmata and spinal dysraphism and its significance

From: Role of ultrasonography in screening of spinal dysraphism in infants at risk

Skin stigmata No spinal dysraphism Spinal dysraphism Test value P value Sig.
No. = 13 No. = 20
Hemangioma
 No 13 (100.0%) 19 (95.0%) 0.670* 0.413 NS
 Yes 0 (0.0%) 1 (5.0%)    
Skin discoloration
 No 10 (76.9%) 19 (95.0%) 2.417* 0.120 NS
 Yes 3 (23.1%) 1 (5.0%)    
Dimple
 No 11 (84.6%) 16 (80.0%) 0.113* 0.737 NS
 Yes 2 (15.4%) 4 (20.0%)    
Swelling
 No 13 (100.0%) 14 (70.0%) 4.767* 0.029 S
 Yes 0 (0.0%) 6 (30.0%)    
Type of swelling
 No 13 (100.0%) 14 (70.0%) 4.767* 0.092 NS
 Fatty 0 (0.0%) 2 (10.0%)    
 Cystic 0 (0.0%) 4 (20.0%)    
Hair tuft
 No 11 (84.6%) 19 (95.0%) 1.028* 0.311 NS
 Yes 2 (15.4%) 1 (5.0%)    
Skin tag
 No 13 (100.0%) 19 (95.0%) 0.670* 0.413 NS
 Yes 0 (0.0%) 1 (5.0%)    
  1. P value > 0.05: non significant; P value < 0.05: significant; P value < 0.01: highly significant
  2. *Chi-square test