Minimally invasive procedures; like ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of foam sclerotherapy (USGFS) are being the keystone methods in managing lower limb varicose veins and its complications, being advantageable over the surgery as being minimally invasive with better postoperative comfort and immediate cosmetic effect and faster return to full socioeconomic activity. Varicose veins are common problem that affects the quality of life and have a significant cost burden on the health care system. Sclerotherapy (endovenous chemical ablation) destructs the endothelium to induce inflammation and fibrosis and then occlusion of the blood vessel lumen.
The study included 33 diseased limbs of females (64.7%) and 18 (35.3 %) limbs of males. Of the diseased limbs, 16 (31.3%) presented with disfigurement, 14 (27.4%) with pain, 11 (19.6%) with heaviness, 6 (11.7%) with edema, and 4 (7.8%) with non-healed venous ulcer. Twenty-six (50.9%) diseased limbs show competent sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ) while 25 (49.1%) limbs showed SFJ reflux of variant degrees. All patients underwent direct ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy either as the primary therapy in 29 (56.9%) limbs or as a complementary therapy for residual perforators and varicosities after treatment with other methods of treatment like laser ablation and phlebograph in 22 (43.1%) limbs. Nine (17.6%) limbs treated with 2% polidocanol (Pol.) and 42 (82.3%) limbs with 3% Pol. In the 2nd session Doppler follow-up, 35 (68.6%) limbs showed complete occlusion while 13 (25.5%) limbs showed partial occlusion, while in the 3rd session Doppler follow-up, 3 (5.9%) limbs still show partial occlusion while 45 (88.2%) limbs showed complete occlusion and no recanalization. Forty (78.4%) limbs addressed marked symptomatic relief while 5 (9.8%) limbs moderate relief and 3 (5.9%) cases with mild relief and the other 3 (5.9%) cases missed follow-up. Twenty-five (49%) limbs had no complications while 23 (45%) limbs had different local complications ranging from pain, hyperpigmentation, and superficial thrombophlebitis. Also, we find a statistically significant correlation between the Pol. concentration injected and the symptomatic relief and Doppler US follow-up while there is a borderline correlation between the Pol. concentration injected and the detected complications.
The preliminary results revealed ultrasound-guide foam sclerotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for lower limb varicose veins. The concentration of polidocanol injected could be correlated significantly with the symptoms improvement and borderline correlation to the complication rate.